Resources

Word and Character Counts

For more information on why we should consider the length of words in our research, see: https://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/item/425 


Timed Reading Passages (Data File)

There are large differences in the number of characters in timed reading texts, even within the same series or official word count. This can significantly impact reading times in your class or your research study. I hope the data in the link above can help you better interpret your results. 

Recommended use: for results that matter in the classroom or published research, calculate reading speed in characters per minute or standard words.


Graded Readers (Data File)

There are large differences in the average word length in graded readers, even within the same series, publisher, or reading level. This means that students who read the same number of words may be processing very different amounts of raw text. This has implications for any study attempting to control time on task. I hope the data in the link above can help you better interpret your results.

Recommended use: measure reading amount in character based units such as characters per minute or standard words.

Vocabulary Profiling

Coverage Ranks and Levels within the Graded Reader Corpus (Related Files)

The Graded Reader Corpus is a collection of 1,872 graded reader texts from 26 publishers. In the file above, you can find the ranks and levels required to reach 95% and 98% coverage using three lists of words as learner targets: the New GSL (Brezina & Gablasova, 2015), the NGSL (Browne et al, 2013), and the BNC/COCA (Nation, 2020). The file also contains the results using a list representing Japanese learner vocabulary knowledge, the SEWK-J (Pinchbeck, manuscript in preparation). 

If used or referenced, please cite as:

Kramer, B. (2023). The vocabulary of extensive reading: A corpus analysis of graded readers [Ph.D. dissertation]. Temple University.


Genius Dictionary (6th Edition) 3- and 2- Star Vocabulary Lists (Related Files)

The Genius English-Japanese dictionary (Minamide & Nakamura, 2023) is one of the standard English-Japanese dictionaries used by Japanese learners. The words on the reference lists described here were labelled as A or B Rank (3 or 2 stars) in the 6th edition, meaning they are thought to represent English words at the JHS and SHS level.

The word lists for the 5th edition are also included in the link above.

Recommended use: if you work at a Japanese institution that requires materials to only use Genius Dictionary A or B rank words, then these lists can help you.

Vocabulary Tests

Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT) (Download Related Files)

The LVLT was created to address a gap in L2 Vocabulary testing, in that there has been no widely available test of aural lexical knowledge. The LVLT tests aural knowledge of the 5 most frequent 1000-word frequency bands of the BNC/COCA word frequency list created by Paul Nation (2012), along with the Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000). The LVLT uses a multiple choice format with four L1 distractors and a reading of each target word first in isolation, then within a non-defining context sentence. If you would like to create another version of the LVLT for different L1 students, please let us know and we will do what we can to help.

Before using this test, I’d like to offer the following notes:

All users of the LVLT should be aware that they need to analyze the data themselves to consider the validity of its use in their unique context.

If used or referenced, please cite as:

McLean, S., Kramer, B., & Beglar, D. (2015). The validation of a listening vocabulary levels test. Language Teaching Research, 19(6), 741-760. (Download Offprint)

The Simplified Chinese variant was kindly translated by Dr. Anna Chang


New Vocabulary Levels Test (NVLT) (Download Related Files)

The NVLT is a written-receptive parallel version of the LVLT which can be used by teachers and researchers for both pedagogical and research-related purposes. If you would like to create another version of the NVLT for different L1 students, please let us know and we’ll do what we can to help.

Before using this test, I’d like to offer the following notes:

All users of the NVLT should be aware that they need to analyse the data themselves to consider the validity of its use in their unique context.

If used or referenced, please cite as:

McLean, S., & Kramer, B. (2015). The creation of a new vocabulary levels test. Shiken, 19(2), 1-11. (Download Manuscript)

McLean, S., & Kramer, B. (2016). The development of a Japanese bilingual version of the New Vocabulary Levels Test. Vocabulary Education and Research Bulletin, 5(1), 2-5. (Download Manuscript)

Media

Discussion Class Introduction

In this PR video I introduce a discussion-focused class that I run in the Kwansei Gakuin University, School of Education. 

<COMING SOON>

Introduction to Extensive Reading

This is a video I co-created and narrated at Osaka Jogakuin University & Junior College, which explains the benefits of Extensive Reading (in Japanese).

Introduction to Xreading.com

This is a video I co-created at Osaka Jogakuin University & Junior College explaining Xreading.com to students (in Japanese).

Studying with Xreading (Video 1) 

This is a video I helped create at Osaka Jogakuin University & Junior College in which students discuss the benefits of Extensive Reading (using Xreading), as well as the strategies which helped them to succeed.

Studying with Xreading (Video 2

This is a video I helped create at Osaka Jogakuin University & Junior College in which students describe their growth as readers through Extensive Reading (using Xreading), as well as their regrets not studying as much as they should have when they had the chance as first year students.